Claudia Dompe, Lisa Moncrieff, Jacek Matys, Kinga Grzech-Le ́sniak, Ievgeniia Kocherova, Artur Bryja, Małgorzata Bruska, Marzena Dominiak, Paul Mozdziak, Tarcio Hiroshi Ishimine Skiba, Jamil A. Shibli, Ana Angelova Volponi, Bartosz Kempisty and Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwi ́nska.
Received: 6 April 2020; Accepted: 1 June 2020; Published: 3 June 2020
The purpose of this study is to explore the possibilities for the application of laser therapy in medicine and dentistry by analyzing lasers’ underlying mechanism of action on different cells, with a special focus on stem cells and mechanisms of repair. The interest in the application of laser therapy in medicine and dentistry has remarkably increased in the last decade. There are different types of lasers available and their usage is well defined by different parameters, such as: wavelength, energy density, power output, and duration of radiation. Laser irradiation can induce a photobiomodulatory (PBM) effect on cells and tissues, contributing to a directed modulation of cell behaviors, enhancing the processes of tissue repair. Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), can induce cell proliferation and enhance stem cell differentiation. Laser therapy is a non-invasive method that contributes to pain relief and reduces inflammation, parallel to the enhanced healing and tissue repair processes. The application of these properties was employed and observed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions, such as diabetes, brain injury, spinal cord damage, dermatological conditions, oral irritation, and in different areas of dentistry.
The role of light in biological systems and processes can be observed clearly in our sleep–wake cycles, circadian rhythms, and in the absorption of vitamins. The introduction of lasers, as sources of amplified, stimulated emission of radiation, gave researchers an opportunity to obtain and use high-powered light (at specific wavelengths) in biology, creating a new perspective for its application in healing and tissue engineering. In medicine and dentistry, lasers used in phototherapy and included in photobiomodulation (PBM) are low-level lasers (class III) which are defined with an output power of 500 mW, and there are also high-level lasers (class IV) with a power output of 500 mW or more. At the same time, the research focusing on stem cells and their properties contributes to better
understanding of the repair and regeneration mechanisms, based on properties of stem cells such as
self-renewal and ability of multilineage differentiation. The effect of PBM in accelerating the healing process was introduced in the 1960s by Endre Mester and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers used it for enhancing the healing processes in space Laser and LED light induce a photobiomodulation (PBM) effect which is used to accelerate healing, as it increases cell viability by stimulating the mitochondrial and cell membrane photoreceptors synthesis of ATP. This process can be used in promoting the proliferation rate of osteoblasts, allowing the development of new clinical approaches where the influence of laser irradiation will be cross-linked with the knowledge of stem cell behaviour and directed manipulation toward accelerated bone repair.